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John 1

Prologue to the Gospel

1 In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God. 2 This [one] was in [the] beginning with God. 3 All came into being through him, and apart from him came into being not one [thing] that has come into being. 4 In him was zoe-life1 , and the zoe-life1 was the light of men. 5 And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not master2 it.

6 There came [a] man [who] has been sent from God, [a] name for him [is] John; 7 this [one] came for [a] witness, that he should witness concerning the light, that all believe through him. 8 That [one] was not the light, but that he witness concerning the light. 9 This was the true light, that lights every man, coming into the world. 10 He was in the world, and the world came into being through him, and the world did not know him. 11 He came to his own [thing]3, and his own [people]4 did not receive him. 12 But as many as received him, to them he gave [the] authority to become children of God, to those believing in his name, 13 those [who] were born not out of bloods5 nor out of [the] will of flesh nor out of [the] will of [a] man6 but out of God.

14 And the word became flesh, and tented7 among us, and we observed his glory, glory as of [the] uniquely-begotten8 from [the] father, full of grace and truth. 15 John witnesses concerning him and has cried out saying: This [one] was [about] whom I said: The [one] coming after me is become in front of me because he was before9. 16 For out of his fullness we all received even grace upon10 grace. 17 For the law was given through Moses, grace and truth came into being through Jesus Christ. 18 No one has ever seen God; [the] uniquely-begotten8, God11, the [one] being in the lap12 of the father, that [one] declared13 [him].

The Testimony of John the Baptist

19 And this is the witness of John when the Jews sent to him from Jerusalem priests and Levites that they ask14 him: Who are you? 20 And he professed and did not deny, and professed: I am not the Christ. 21 And they asked14 him, What then? Are you Elijah? And he says: I am not. Are you the prophet? And he answered: No. 22 Then they said to him: Who are you, so that we may give answer to those having sent us. What do you say about yourself?

23 He said:15

I [am the] voice of [one] crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord,
just as Isaiah the prophet said.

24 And they had been sent out of the Pharisees. 25 And they asked him14 and said to him: So why do you baptize if you are not the Christ nor Elijah nor the prophet?

26 John answered them saying: I baptize in water. In your midst has stood what you do not know, 27 the [one] coming after me, of whom I am not worthy that I may loose the thong of his sandal. 28 These [things] came to pass in Bethany on the other side of the Jordan, where John was baptizing.

29 On the next day he sees Jesus coming toward him, and says: Behold the lamb of God, the [one] taking away the sin of the world. 30 This is the one concerning whom I said: [a] man comes after me that is become before me, because he was my foremost16. 31 And I did not know him. But so that he be revealed to Israel, because of this I came baptizing in water.

32 And John witnessed, saying: I have seen the spirit coming down as [a] dove out of heaven, and [he] remained upon him. 33 And I did not know him, but the [one who] sent me to be baptizing in water, that [one] said to me: Upon whom you see the spirit coming down and remaining upon him, this is the [one] baptizing in [the] Holy Spirit. 34 And I have seen, and have witnessed that this is the son of God.

35 On the next day John had again stood, also two out of his disciples. 36 And when [he] looked upon Jesus walking he says: Behold the lamb of God. 37 And the two disciples heard him speaking and they followed Jesus. 38 Now when Jesus turned and saw them following he says to them: What are you seeking? And they said to him: Rabbi, which is saying being translated: Teacher, where are you staying? 39 He says to them: Be coming and you will see. So they came and saw where he stays, and they stayed with him that day, as it was [the] tenth17 hour.

Andrew's Declaration

40 Andrew the brother of Simon Peter was one of the two who heard from John and followed him. 41 This [one] finds first his own brother Simon and says to him: We have found the Messiah, which is being translated: Christ. 42 He brought him to Jesus. Having looked upon him, Jesus said: You are Simon the son of Jonas, you shall be called Cephas18, which is translated: Peter19.

Calling More Disciples

43 On the next day he wanted to go forth into Galilee, and he finds Phillip. And Jesus says to him: Be following me. 44 Now Phillip was from Bethsaida, out of the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Phillip finds Nathaneal, and says to him: What is written in the law of Moses and the prophets we have found, Jesus, son of Joseph, the [one] from Nazareth. 46 And Nathanael said to him: What good is able to be out of Nazareth? Phillip says to him: Be coming and see.

47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and says concerning him: Behold [a] true Israelite in whom there is not deceit. 48 Nathanael says to him: From where do you know me? Jesus answered and said to him: Before Phillip called you, being under the fig tree I saw you. 49 Nathanael answered him: Rabbi, you are the son of God, you are king of Israel. 50 Jesus answered and said to him: Because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree you are believing? Greater than these you will see. 51 Truly truly I say to you, You will [all]20 see heaven having opened and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the son of man.21

1from ZOE "ZOH-ay" (ζωη)—Life 'collectively', interdependent, interconnected. Although it means 'life' in the conventional sense (for example: Matt.9:18, Matt.27:63, Luke.2:36, Acts.25:24, Rom.7:2, 2Cor.1:8, 1Thes.4:17, 1Tim.5:10, Rev.19:20), Jesus uses ZOE exclusively of 'life eternal' (with the possible exceptions of Luke.15:13, Luke.16:25). The other N.T. writers use ZOE in both senses—temporal and eternal, generally clear from the context. The Father is the 'zoe-living God' (see Matt.16:16). The Septuagint (LXX) in Gen.2:7 has "...[God] breathed into his nostrils the breath of zoe-life, and the man became a zoe-living psyche-life" (and see 1Cor.15:45); and Gen.3:20 (LXX) "And Adam called his wife's name ZOE, because she was the mother of all zoe-living." Contrast PSYCHE (ψυχη): an individual manifestation of life/consciousness. See John.12:25 where both ZOE and PSYCHE occur. Greek also has the word BIOS (βιoς ) for 'life' in the sense of biological processes.

2can mean either 'understand' or `overcome'

3singular, neuter pronoun

4plural, masculine pronoun

5The plural may imply both parents—'human descent'

6ANER (ανηρ) 'adult male', 'husband'.

7indicates a temporary, not permanent dwelling. May also refer to the Tabernacle.

8MONOGENES `mah-noh-gen-AYS" (μoνγενεης ) Literally `only (MONO) + begotten/birthed (GENES)'. GENNAO "gen-AH-oh" (γενναω) is used of `begetting' by the father, and `birthing' by the mother in the Greek literature in general as well as the Septuagint. Thus it refers to the reproductive process as a whole. GENNAO is also used of the special relationship between a Master and his disciples, where no literal begetting or birthing is involved. Since there isn't really an English word that encompasses the whole reproductive cycle, GENNAO is reluctantly translated as 'born' except in those contexts where it would be strange to the English reader to say 'born of a father' or 'begotten by a mother'. MONOGENES appears in: Luke.7:12, Luke.8:42, Luke.9:38, John.1:14, John.1:18, John.3:16, John.3:18, Heb.11:17, 1John.4:9. Luke only uses MONOGENES to refer to 'an only-child'. But see Heb.11:17 where Isaac is referred to as MONOGENES even though he has an older brother Ishmael. Thus it must also mean 'uniquely-born/begotten' and not strictly 'only-child'.

9can mean `before' in the sense of Rank, or of Time (he was here first)

10Could mean 1. "grace instead of grace" ("new covenant" replacing the "old"?), 2. "grace upon grace"—a super-abundance of grace, or 3. "grace corresponding to grace". The most commonly held view is 2. See the Septuagint Ex.33:13: "...if I have found grace in your sight, let me know your ways, that I may know you, so that I may find grace in your sight." In other words, 'if I have found grace, let me find more.'

11"God" p66,75ℵBH; "son" K vg. Note: only one letter would have differentiated these two readings in the manuscripts.

12or 'bosom'

13or `explained'

14EROTAO (ερωταω) "Ask", but more polite, not demanding/begging as is AITEO. Both AITEO and EROTAO occur in John.16:26.


16or "first"

17approx. 4 p.m.

18Aramaic for "rock"

19Literally `PETROS' (Πετρoς ), which is Greek for "rock"

20"you" is plural

21an allusion to Jacob's ladder—"angels ascending and descending." (Gen.28:12–17)