Matthew 5

The Beatitudes

1 Now having seen the crowd he went up to the mountain, and having sat, his disciples came to him. 2 And having opened his mouth he taught them saying:

3 Blessed1 are the poor in the spirit
For theirs is the kingdom of the heavens.
4 2 Blessed are those mourning,
For they will be comforted.
5 Blessed are the humble,3
For they will inherit the land. 4
6 Blessed are those hungering and thirsting for justice,
 For they will be filled.
7 Blessed are the merciful,
For they will be shown mercy.
8 Blessed are the pure in heart,
For they will see God.
9 Blessed are the peacemakers,
For they will be called [the] sons of God.
10 Blessed are those persecuted because of justice,
For theirs is the kingdom of the heavens.

11 Blessed are you when they reproach you and persecute you and say all wickedness5 against you falsely6 because of me. 12 Be rejoicing and be being glad, for great [is] your reward in the heavens. For thus they persecuted the prophets before you.

Salt and Light

13 You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt become tasteless, by what will it be made salty? [It is] worthy for nothing except to be thrown out [and] trampled by men. 14 You are the light of the world. [a] city cannot be hid [when] set on [a] mountain. 15 Neither do men light [a] lamp and place it under the bushel basket, but [rather] upon the lamp stand, and it illumines all those in the house. 16 So let7 your light shine before men, that they see your good works and glorify your father in the heavens.

Fulfillment of the Law and Prophets

17 Do not think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I came not to destroy but to fulfill8. 18 For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, one dot-of-an-"i" or cross-of-a-"t" will not pass away from the law, until all come to pass. 19 For whoever sets aside9 one of these least commandments and so teaches men, he will be called least in the kingdom of the heavens. [But whoever does and teaches [them], this [one] will be called great in the kingdom of the heavens.]10 20 For I say to you that unless your justice abounds more than [that] of the scribes and Pharisees, you shall not enter into the kingdom of the heavens.

Anger and Murder

21 You heard that it was said to the ancients11: You shall not murder, and whoever murders will be liable for judgment. 22 But I say to you that everyone [being] angry with his brother 12 will be liable for judgment. And Whoever says to his brother: Raka13, he will be liable to the council, and whoever says: [You] stupid, he will be liable to the Gehenna fire14 . 23 If therefore you bring your gift to the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, 24 leave your gift there before the altar, and be going first [and] be reconciled to your brother, and then having come, be bringing your gift. 25 Be being kind to your opponent swiftly while you are with him in the road, lest your opponent deliver you up to the judge and judge to the officer, and you be thrown into prison. 26 Truly I say to you, you shall not come out from there until you have yielded your last penny.


27 You heard that it was said15: You shall not commit adultery. 28 But I say to you that everyone looking at [someone's] wife16 to desire her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29 And if your right eye makes you stumble, pluck it out and throw [it] from you, for it is profitable to you that one of your parts perish and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna14. 30 And if your right hand makes you stumble, cut it off and throw it from you, for it is profitable to you that one of your parts perish and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna14.


17 31 And it was said18: Whoever puts away his wife, let7 him give her [a] divorce. 32 But I say to you that everyone putting away his wife except [by] reason of fornication makes her commit adultery, and whoever marries the [one] having been put away commits adultery.


33 Again you have heard that it was said to the ancients19: You shall not swear falsely, but you will perform your oaths to the Lord. 34 But I say to you do not swear at all, neither by heaven, for it is God's throne, 35 nor by earth, for it is his footstool, nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king, 36 neither by your own head, for you are not able to make one hair white or black. 37 Let7 your word yes [be] yes [and] no [be] no, and what is more than this is from the wicked5 [one].


38 You have heard that it was said20: Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth. 39 But I say to you not to oppose wickedness5, but whoever strikes21 the right [side] of your cheek, turn to him the other also. 40 And to the [one] wanting to sue [you] and take your shirt, give up to him your coat also. 41 And whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 42 Give to whoever requests22 of you, and from the [one] wanting to borrow from you do not turn away.

Love for enemies

43 You have heard that it was said23: You shall agape-love your neighbor, and you shall hate your enemy. 44 But I say to you, be agape-loving your enemies 24 and be praying for those persecuting you, 45 in order that you become sons of your father in [the] heavens. For he makes his sun [to] rise upon the wicked5 and the good, and sends rain upon the just and the unjust. 46 For if you agape-love those agape-loving you, what reward do you have? Don't the tax-collectors do likewise? 47 And if you only greet your brothers, what do you do more [than] [anyone] [else]? Don't the nations25 do likewise? 48 Therefore be complete26 as your heavenly father is complete27 .

1means "truly rich," was used to describe the state of the gods. Vss. 3–11 use this same word.

2vs 4 then vs 5: ℵBW HK all; vs. 5 then vs. 4: D vg

3PRAUS (πραυς ) Danker (2000): "not being overly impressed by a sense of one's self-importance; gentleness, humility, courtesy, considerateness". (Perhaps the opposite of HUBRIS—arrogance/pride.)


5PONEROS (πoνηρoς ) here. The Greek word KAKOS (κακoς ) is always translated `evil', PONEROS is usually translated as `wicked' although occasionally as `bad'; it can also mean 'diseased', 'sickly' and is thus translated where appropriate. Like KAKOS, PONEROS also means `evil', but the harm that evil does is more in view, where KAKOS is more `evil as evil'.

6"falsely" ℵWHK all vg; omit: D


8or "satisfy"

9or "loosens", "does away with"

10insert "But whoever does... kingdom of the heavens": ℵDW; omit: everyone else


12insert "without cause" DW K most; text: ℵB few vg p67

13the Aramaic word "Raka" means "[You] worthless", "good-for nothing". But `raqa' in the dialect of Aramaic probably spoken in Jesus' region means `I spit on you'.

14"Gehenna" (γεεννα) was a garbage dump outside of Jerusalem that was perpetually on fire.


16the Greek word GUNA ("GOO-nay") means both `woman' and `wife'. Since the context is about adultery, where at least one party is married, `[someone's] wife seems the better choice than `woman'

17In Jesus's day it was very easy for a man to divorce his wife, and given the culture of the day she had few choices for economic survival.




21or "thrashes"

22AITEO "ay-TEH-oh" (αιτεω) "request", "demand", "beg" something for oneself. Far from humbly requesting—it's more like 'demanding'. Jesus uses AITEO only of the prayer of others, not of His own (cf. John.16:26)—and not requesting things for Himself, only for others. AITEO seems to suppose a lesser degree of intimacy than EROTAO (ερωταω), hence AITEO is used of the requests of the disciples to God, but EROTAO of the requests of the disciples to Jesus, and of those of Jesus to the Father ( John.14:16). AITEO is demanding/begging/pleading, EROTAO is polite and friendlier. Both AITEO and EROTAO occur in John.16:26.


24insert "be blessing those cursing you, be doing good to those hating you" DW K many; text: ℵB few

25i.e. the Gentiles

26TELIOS "tel-AY-os" (τελιoς ) "complete" or "perfect"

27TELIOS "tel-AY-os" (τελιoς ) "complete" or "perfect"