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Romans 1

1 I, Paul, [a] slave of Christ Jesus, [a] called apostle having been set apart to the good-news of God, 2 which he promised before through his prophets in [the] holy scriptures, 3 concerning his son having come to be from [the] seed of David according to [the] flesh, 4 the [one] having been designated1 son of God with power according to [the] spirit of holiness from the resurrection of [the] dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, 5 through whom we receive grace and apostleship to [the] obedience of faith in all the nations in behalf of [his] name, 6 in whom you also are called-[ones] of Jesus Christ, 7 to all those being in Rome agape-beloved of God, to the holy, called [ones], grace to you and peace from God our father and [the] Lord Jesus Christ.

8 First indeed I thank my God through Jesus Christ concerning all [of you], because your faith is proclaimed in the whole world. 9 For God is my witness, to whom I minister in my spirit in the good-news of his son, as unceasingly I do remembrance [of you] 10 always in my prayers, asking whether at last I will succeed in my wish of God to come to you. 11 For I strain to see you, in order that I impart2 some spiritual gift3 to you to your being established4. 12 And this is to receive encouragement together among you through your and my faith in one another. 13 So I do not want you to be being ignorant, brothers, that I often purposed to come to you, and I was hindered until now, in order that I have some gift also among you, just as also among the rest of the nations. 14 To both Greek and foreigner, to both wise and unintelligent am I [a] debtor; 15 thus is the desire in me for you also in Rome to be good-newsed. 16 For I am not ashamed of the good-news; for it is the power of God to salvation to all believing, to [the] Jew first and also to [the] Greek. 17 For [the] justice of God is revealed by him from faith to faith, just as it is written5: For the just will zoe-live6 by faith. 18 For the anger of God is revealed from heaven upon all irreverence and injustice of those men suppressing7 the truth in8 injustice; for God has manifested [them] to9 them. 20 For the [things] unseen [about] him, which are known from the creation of [the] world, are perceived in the [things] made, both his eternal power and [his] God-hood, so that they are without defense, 21 because knowing God they did not glorify or thank [him] as God, but were given over to futility in their reasonings, and their non-understanding heart was darkened. 22 Asserting to be wise they were made foolish10, 23 and they changed the glory of incorruptible God into the likeness of [the] image of corruptible man and birds and four-footed [things] and reptiles. 24 Therefore God delivered them up in the lusts of their hearts to the uncleanness of dishonoring their bodies among themselves. 25 They themselves exchanged the truth of God for the false, and worshipped and ministered to the creation instead of the creator, who is blessed to the ages, Amen. 26 Because of this God delivered them up to passion of dishonor, for their females exchanged the natural use for that contrary to nature. 27 Likewise also the males having left the natural use of the females exchanged [it] in their longings for one another—men among men doing the shameless [thing] and receiving the penalty which they must of their deceit in themselves. 28 And just as they did not approve to be having God in [their] knowledge, God delivered them up to [an] unsound mind, to be doing the [things] not being fit, 29 filled with every unjust pernicious greedy evil, full of jealousy, murder, strife, treachery, malice, gossip, 30 slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant, braggarts, contrivers of evil, disobedient to parents, 31 not understanding, not bound by agreements, not [having] natural affection, not merciful, 32 who knowing the sentence of God, that those practicing such are worthy of death, not only do them, but also approve of those practicing [them].

1or "appointed", "determined"

2or "share"

3from GRACE

4or "strengthened"


6from ZOE "ZOH-ay" (ζωη)—Life 'collectively', interdependent, interconnected. Although it means 'life' in the conventional sense (for example: Matt.9:18, Matt.27:63, Luke.2:36, Acts.25:24, Rom.7:2, 2Cor.1:8, 1Thes.4:17, 1Tim.5:10, Rev.19:20), Jesus uses ZOE exclusively of 'life eternal' (with the possible exceptions of Luke.15:13, Luke.16:25). The other N.T. writers use ZOE in both senses—temporal and eternal, generally clear from the context. The Father is the 'zoe-living God' (see Matt.16:16). The Septuagint (LXX) in Gen.2:7 has "...[God] breathed into his nostrils the breath of zoe-life, and the man became a zoe-living psyche-life" (and see 1Cor.15:45); and Gen.3:20 (LXX) "And Adam called his wife's name ZOE, because she was the mother of all zoe-living." Contrast PSYCHE (ψυχη): an individual manifestation of life/consciousness. See John.12:25 where both ZOE and PSYCHE occur. Greek also has the word BIOS (βιoς ) for 'life' in the sense of biological processes.

7or "restraining"

8or "by"

9or "in"

10or "shown foolish"